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تهدید روسیه برای افزایش تعرفه گمرکی برای کالاهای آمریکایی

به گزارش گروه بین‌الملل خبرگزاری تسنیم، روزنامه اینترنتی «آر.ب.کا.» نوشته است: روسیه قصد دارد به اعمال تعرفه وارداتی جدید آمریکا برای فولاد و آلومینیوم، با اقدامی معادل پاسخ دهد. افزایش هزینه‌های گمرکی برای هر نوع کالای وارداتی از آمریکا در نظر گرفته شده و این تدابیر ممکن است از ماه ژوئن (اواخر خرداد-اوایل تیرماه) اعمال شود.

روسیه با ارسال اطلاعیه‌ای برای شورای تجارت کالای سازمان تجارت جهانی اعلام کرده که حاضر است اقدامات معادلی علیه آمریکا در پاسخ به مقررات جدید گمرکی برای واردات فولاد و آلومینیوم به این کشور در نظر بگیرد.

طرف روسی پیش از این از سازمان تجارت جهانی  خواسته بود تا رایزنی‌هایی با ایالات متحده در باره این تصمیم اخیر واشنگتن انجام دهد. بر اساس قوانین این سازمان، کشوری که اقداماتی دفاعی در زمینه واردات خود اعمال می کند که روی صادرات سایر کشورها تاثیر منفی می گذارد، باید جبران خسارت کند. این جبران خسارت می تواند به شکل اعطای امتیازات تجاری خاص یا امتیاز گمرکی برای گروهی از کالاها باشد: برای مثال آمریکا می توانست تعرفه های گمرکی برای صادرات سایر کالاهای روسی را کاهش دهد. ولی از آنجا که طرف آمریکایی ظرف ۳۰ روز هیچ نوع پیشنهادی برای جبران خسارت به روسیه نداده، مسکو حق خویش می داند تا دست به اقدامات معادل علیه آمریکا بزند.

سازمان تجارت جهانی مشخص نکرده است که معیار برای «اقدامات معادل» کشورها در این قبیل موارد چه باید باشد، بنابراین کشورها بر اساس صلاحدید خود تدابیری در چارچوب قوانین این سازمان برای دفاع از صادرات خود در نظر می گیرند.

روسیه جبرانی خسارتی معادل ۵۳۸ میلیون دلار را در نظر گرفته

بر اساس اطلاعیه روسیه، این کشور قصد دارد اقدامات دفاعی معادل خود را به شکل افزایش هزینه گمرکی برای کالاهای آمریکایی انجام دهد. ولی هنوز مشخص نیست چه کالاهایی مورد نظر است.

وزارت توسعه اقتصادی روسیه در پاسخ به این سئوال روزنامه «ار.ب.کا» توضیح داد، طرف روسی محاسبه کرده که افزایش تعرفه گمرکی آمریکا برای فولاد و آلومینیوم به ترتیب (۲۵ و ۱۰ درصد بوده) که بر صادرات فولاد روسیه ۱،۵۱ میلیارد دلار در سال و برای صادرات آلومینیوم ۱،۶۵ میلیارد دلار در سال ( که ارزش کلی ۳،۱۵۸ میلیارد دلار است) تاثیر می گذارد. هزینه گمرکی که آمریکایی می توانست از این صادرات روسی جمع کند، ۵۳۷،۶ میلیون دلار بود. بدین ترتیب اقدام معادل اعمال هزینه گمرکی برای کالاهای وارداتی از آمریکا باید به این ترتیب باشد که روسیه باید حدود همین مبلغ از حجم وارداتی خود از آمریکا در سال ۲۰۱۷ بدست آورد.

حجم کلی واردات کالاهای آمریکایی به روسیه در سال ۲۰۱۷ معادل ۱۲،۵ میلیارد دلار بود که بیشترین حجم این واردات، خودرو، تجهیزات فنی و مهندسی، وسایل حمل و نقل و محصولات شیمیایی است.  بدین ترتیب برای مثال روسیه می تواند کالاهای آمریکایی را انتخاب کند که ارزش وارداتی آنها در سال ۲۰۱۷ دقیقا معادل ۵۳۷،۶ میلیون دلار شده و مقررات گمرکی برای واردات آنها مشابه باشد.  

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